Television As An Instrument Of Educational Advancement In Enugu State (a Study Of Imt)

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          The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of television educational programme on children. One hundred and eighty respondents were randomly selected for the study in Enugu Sate and questionnaires  were distributed to them.  To accomplish this task, the following hypothesis were tested.

H1:    Educational  Programmes stimulate interest of school  children in education,

H2:    The timing and suitability of educational programmes on NTA channel 8 to children in Enugu State

H3:    Visual aids used in educational  programmes are sufficient to enhance understanding of educational programmes

H4:   educational programmes on television are more effective in educating school children than academic activities in the school.

         The tabularized and percentage  statistical technique was used to test the above –formulated hypothesis.

         After a carefully analysis, it  was discovered that three of the formulated hypotheses received statistical support while the remaining one upheld the null hypothesis.

         Based on the above findings, the researchers recommended among other things, that there is need for N.T.A. Channel 8 Enugu to bring back to our television educational programme that will improve the standard of the education in the state.

The researchers also suggest that for a more valid appraisals of this research a  similar study should be carried out in other parts of the country.



TITLE PAGE                                                                II

APPROVAL PAGE                                                      III

DEDICATION                                                               IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                             V

ABSTRACT                                                                  VI

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                         VIII


INTRODUCTION                                                         1

1.1       BACKGROUND  OF THE STUDY                            1


1.3       PURPOSE  OF THE STUDY                                     9

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                    10

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS                               11

1.6       RESEARCH HYPOTHESES                                     12


1.8       ASSUMPTION                                                   13

1.9       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY                     14


2.0       REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE                     15

2.1       SOURCES OF LITERATURE                                    15






2.7       THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK                       15

2.8       SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW                   20

CHAPTER THREE methodology                     24

3.1       Research method                                              24

3.2       Research design                                               24

3.3       Population of study

3.4       Sample size determination                                         26

3.5       Sampling technique

3.6       Instrument for data collection

3.7       Validity and reliability of instrument

3.8       Method of data collection

3.9       Method of data  analysis                                            29

3.10    Expected Results                                              30


4.1       DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS                            31

4.2       DATA ANALYSIS       

4.3       TEST OF HYPOTHESIS                                  31



5.1       SUMMARY                                                         45

5.2       RECOMMENDATION                                       47

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                          49

QUESTIONNAIRE                                             53






Education in Nigeria today, has assumed a very important position in the country’s development programme.  This accounts  for the introduction of the universal free primary education (U.P.E.) in  1976 and the establishment of new primary, secondary and post secondary schools all over the country.

Education could be defined in various ways.  In a  very broad sense, education includes every agency, which enables an individual to master his physical and social environment of which  he is a member.  But for the purpose of this education will be defined as an organized and formal instruction, which is given in educational establishments such as schools, colleges and universities.

Education has an important role to play in the economy of a nation.  The most important economic function as that of ensuring that the nation’s need for a labour force is satisfied.

However, formal  education in Nigeria is no longer confirmed to education establishments only.  The mass media have, in recent times, taken a held and positive step towards enhancing educational development in the country.  An example is that Enugu State Broadcasting (ESBS)

Mass media communication comprised   the institutions and techniques by which specialized groups employ technological devices, that is the press, TV, Radio, Film ETC, to disseminate information to large heterogeneous and widely disperse audience.

This study is particularly concerned with TV and its contribution to educational advancement in the country especially Enugu state.

Television Broadcasting was first established in Nigeria (indeed Africa) on October 31st 1956  in Ibadan, by the their government of the western region of Nigeria.

This station now called Nigeria Television Ibadan (NTA Ibadan) was run as an  aim of the former western Nigeria government Broadcasting corporation initially under the trading name western Nigeria Radio services limited, in partnership with oversees rediffusion limited of U.K 

Two years after its inception, the regional Government bought over the shares of the foreign partners, and became  the proprietor. A year after the establishment of the    Ibadan station, the former government of Eastern Nigeria, in October 1960, set up the second Nigeria Television service then known as ENTV.

This later become NTA Enugu shortly after, on  1967 the Northern Region Government established a television station as an aim of the Broadcasting company of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) located in Kaduna, the station was known as Radio Kaduna Television (RKTV) and was also owned jointly by the regional government and a British Television Company.  The Federal Government in 1962, established its own  station, the Nigeria Television service (NTS) under a management agreement with an American Network.  This services was confirmed to the federal capital, and soon came under the Nigeria Broadcasting corporation, (NBC) when the management contract with the Americans was determined.

The advert  of television brought with it  a new dimension to broadcasting in Africa within  the first decade of its  arrival twenty –two African countries established their own  television stations. 

The creation of states in  Nigeria meant that the new  state administrators could set- up television net works in their states.  The old government  of the Mid-Western states in 1973 went ahead by establishing the Mid-West Television (MTV) now NTA Benin, but emerged, transmitting in colour.  It  therefore becomes the first station in the country to broadcast  in colour.

In 1975, the federal military government announced its intention to take over television station in Nigeria.  It then set up a machinery within the federal ministry of information t give effect to its plan.  At this time, ten stations,  Ibadan, Enugu, Kaduna, Lagos, Benin, Jos, Port –Harcourt, Kano, Sokoto and Owerri (Aba), in order had been set-up the Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May, 1977 although Decree 24  of 1977 which establish  it  was promulgated in March 1977 but effect from April 1976.  by that Decree the Nigeria Television Authority become the only body empowered to undertake  televisions broadcasting in the country, indeed the federal government has begun to fund all the station from the first April, 1976, when networking of news also commenced of Nigeria Television, Via Domestic Satellite (Domsat).  By December 1979, there was scheduled broadcasts from every state capitalization of broadcasting station and the creation of new states many new television education services has come to stay in Nigeria.

The programming of Television Educational progrmmes came shortly  after the establishment of Television industry, The cardinal point of the NTA’S programming is its  public service nature.

The enabling low stipulates that NTA be independent and impartial:  Its programming and coverage polices should therefore be available oriented, but guided by the nation’s social, political , moral cultural, scientific, educational and  economic goals.

The purpose of programme objections in dual, firstly, it facilitates, the monitoring of programmes on the basis of a recognized fame of reference and secondly, it serves to focus the producers mind on the purpose of the programme he is making.

          The following decision on classification on programmes should not in any way be seen to be mutually, ecclesial application.  Rather, they are meant to serve as guided posts to success and effective programming.

-        Children’s programme

-        Youth programme

-        Family matters  programmes

-        News and current affairs programmes

-        Sports programmes

-        Drama Programms

-        Light entertainment Programmes

-        The arts  Programmes.

          According to Uchenna Odoh of NTA Channel and presentation Unit, at the time of this research, the NTA broadcast the following educational programme.

          On Mondays, quiz time by 5.00pm, Wednesday, Do-it –yourself by 4.3pm,  Thursdays, set /Network by 6.30pm, Fridays, speak  out by 6.30pm.

          According to him, instructional television, which was usually, shown on Monday’s  by 6.30 pm is presently problems and will come back to air immediately  the problem is rectified.

          According to him. NTA formal educational objectives are as follows:

a.      To complement and supplement classroom education.

b.      To broaden an deepen knowledge

c.       To bring to light bread through in knowledge

d.      To encourage intellectual development

e.      To encourage and teach lavational skills

f.       To provide tutorials on curricular subjects

          This study on Television as an instrument of educational advancement focuses on effectiveness of Television educational programmes on educational advancement  of children in Enugu-state.



          In this study, it is not easy to get accurate responses from audiences due to the massive poverty prevalent in the area.  Many are unable to afford the sets. 

          Questionnaire data through television get only to the minority due to non-availability of electricity.

          Inadequate responses from the respondents delay the research questionnaire.

          Television has the particular problem of technical expertise, in terms of NTA channel 8 Enugu, the programmes are not shown all the time due to technical problem.

          Televisions  set and has time to watched the NTA Channel 8 progrmmes.




a)      The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of Television  educational programmes on children.

b)      How these educational progrmmes can be improved to suit the target audience

c)      This is to find out if visual aids used in educational progrmmes on TV are sufficient to enhance understanding of educational programmes.

d)      This study equally strive to find out if educational programmes on Television are more effective in educating schools children than academic activities in schools. 

e)      Moreover, the study was aimed at finding out if the timing of educational programmes are suitable for the audience.



          This study was important bearing in mind that today’s children live in an audiovisual world and world of technological television.

          Since NTA channel 8 Enugu has shown considerable interest in broadcasting educational programmes aimed at children and adult a like, it is important to examine the effect of these progrmmes on children in Enugu,

          This study  shows the extent which the children could benefit from these progrmmes.   

          The results of this study will add to the total body of knowledge and to the development of television educational programme from which the society as a whole is bound to benefit.



1)      Does the educational programmes on television stimulate interest of school children in Education?

2)      Does the timing of educational programmes on NTA channel 8 Enugu suitable to children in Enugu State?

3)       Does the visual aids used in educational programmes on TV    sufficient to enhance understanding of educational          programme.

4)       Are educational programmes on Television more effective in educating school children than academic activities in school?



Hi      Educational programme on the television stimulate interest of school children in education.

Hoi     Educational programme on the television does not stulate interest of children in Education

H2:    The timing of educational progrmmes on NTA  Channel 8 Enugu is suitable to children in Enugu State.

Ho:    The timing of educational programmes on NTA channel 8 Enugu is not suitable to children in Enugu- State.

H3:    Visual aids used in educational programmes on TV  are sufficient  to enhance understanding of educational programmes

Ho:    Visual aid used in educational programmes on TV are not sufficient to enhance understanding of educational progrmmes.

H4:    Educational programmes are more effective in educating school  children than academic activities in school,

Ho:    Educational programmes are not more effective in educating school children than academic activities in school



          In carrying out the study, the following assumptions were made;

1)      That the people (children) who constituted the sample watched televisions.

2)      That television educational programme was effective in educational advancement of children.

3)      That the previous study has been  carried out on this topic thus there is much research work gathered in literature review.






          This study is an assessment of how television educational programme could affect children and help them in educational advancement in children.

                   It was limited to children between the ages  of 10-18 years.  There are limitation of resource, material and sources needed for the work.  The research work carried out was tedious, sometimes, risky and expensive.

          Finance was also one of the limitations of the study. Not all the students  can afford the amount to complete a project and the study was constrained by time, so the study will not be hundred  percent reliable taking into consideration the above problems.

          However, it is expected that a valid result would be obtained and this would add to the body of existing knowledge on the area of television  viewing children’s behaviour.


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Television As An Instrument Of Educational Advancement In Enugu State