Re-construction Of Gas Pipe Line To Biology, Microbiology And Chemistry Laboratories

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In this project, the installed gas pipeline to biology, microbiology and chemistry laboratories in science laboratory department in the institute of management and technology (IMT), Enugu, which has only one route of flow of gas has been re-constructed using T-joint pipes, elbows, and gate valves.

The T-joint pipes and elbows were used to separate the gas pipelines to these laboratories from one central line. The gate valves control the flow of gas (on or off) to any of these laboratories. This leads to the usage of gas separately to any of these laboratories.

Gas cylinder is dept outside these laboratories for the storing of gas and to reduce danger of fire out brake, hence gas is highly inflammable.




Title Page

Approval Page




Table of Content



1.1            Introduction

1.2            Statement of objectives

1.3            Aim and objectives

1.4            Significance of study

1.5            Limitation of study

1.6            Hypothesis




2.0            Literature review



3.1            Materials and method

3.2            Types of materials

3.3            Method of re-construction of the gas pipeline



4.1            Result

4.2            Diagram of the analysis of the materials system



5.1     Conclusion and recommendation





1.1                                      INTRODUCTION

Gas is any substance like air (not solid or liquids) that moves freely to fill any available space.  It is used as fuel for heating or cooking.

Gas has no definite shape or volume; it contains the shape and volume of its container.  The gas molecules move randomly in a container, colliding with one another and with the walls of the container.

The natural gas is usually found together with crude oil and consists of gaseous hydrocarbons, mainly methane.  Formally, natural gas was burnt off as waste at the oil wells.  Now, most of it is piped for industrial and domestic use.  Components like butane and propane, which liquefy readily under pressure, are sold as bottled gas.  Petroleum gases are liberated at the top of the column at temperatures below 40oc.  They are mainly hydrocarbons consisting of one to four carbon atoms per molecule, e.g.:

i.        Methane

ii.       Ethane

iii.      Propane

iv.      Butane        and

v.       Ethane


They are used mainly as fuels for homes and industries, and for the manufacture of products like hydrogen, carbon (iv) oxide, sulphide, tetrachloromethane and ethyne.  The methane and ethane are usually burnt as fuel while the propane and butane are liquefied and distributed in high-pressure gas cylinder and tanks to be used for lighting and heating purposes at homes and in science laboratories etc.

The behaviour of gas depends on pressure, temperature, and volume.  The force that gaseous particles exert per unit area of the wall is known as the gas pressure.  The volume of the gas is the area available for the gas to occupy, while the temperature is a pressure of the degree of hotness of the gas particles.

As a result of pressure of gases, gas can be channeled into different laboratories such as Biology, Micro-biology and Chemistry Laboratories from gas cylinder by the way of gas pipe lines.  The changing of the pipeline to these laboratories and then fixing valves to each line to control the flow of gas to any of them could affect this, or by using T-joint pipes and elbows to change the gas flow line.  This is to allow for the maintenance of gas supply to these laboratories.



The gas pipelines to Biology, Microbiology, and chemistry Laboratories have only one route of flow of gas and are usually controlled by one gate valve.  As a result of this, the gas supply to any of these Laboratories is not particularly turned on when required or turned off when not required.  This causes wastage of gas.  In addition, as a result of the above situation, a particular labo0ratory is turned on when it is ought to be turned off.  This results in leakage, which can result to fire outbreak.  This is because gas is highly inflammable.

For the above reasons, there is need to reconstruct gas supply to Biology, Micro—biology and Chemistry Laboratories by changing the gas pipe lines and then fixing valves to control the flow of gas to any of the above laboratories.




The aim of this project is to reconstruct gas pipelines to Biology, Microbiology, and Chemistry Laboratories in the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu.


The objectives of the project are:

i.        To separate gas pipelines into the required laboratories.

ii.       To reconstruct gas pipeline that could be effected with0out any leakage.

iii.      To maintain and ensure proper supply of gas to the required laboratories.



This research is important for the following reasons:

1.       The gas supply that has only one rout of flow can now be supplied separately to these laboratories after the reconstruction work.

2.       The leakages that arise because of bad construction of gas supply can now be checked and corrected after the reconstruction work.


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Re-construction Of Gas Pipe Line To Biology, Microbiology And Chemistry Laboratories