PRODUCTION OF ALKYD RESIN USING WATER MELON SEED OIL (CITRULLUS LANATUS)
Alkyd resin was prepared using the seed oil of water melon (Citrullus Lanatus). The extraction of the seed oil of Citrullus Lanatus was done by solvent extraction method using n-hexane as the solvent. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined using standard analytical procedures, the result of the physicochemical properties of the oil is as follows; colour (yellow), specific gravity (0.9), saponification value (181mg KOH g-1). Iodine value (68.63g of iodine/10g of oil), Refractive index at 400C (1.45), Acid value (0.81mg KOH/g) and free fatty acid (12.1mg KOH/g). The result of the physicochemical properties of the oil revealed that the oil is a drying oil since its iodine value is less than 100. The percentage yield of alkyd resin based on the oil is 80%, this shows that the oil is ideal for the production of alkyd resin. The physicochemical properties of alkyd resin produced from the seed oil of water melon (Citrullus Lanatus) revealed that the alkyd resin has good viscosity (23% at 30oC), flexibility (flexible) adhesion (Hard) and drying properties (which involves hard dry (tested after 24hour) and surface dry (tested after 2hours)).
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1.1 Alkyd resin Based on oil length 8
Table 1.2 Structures of some fatty acids found in vegetable oil 12
Table 2.1 The antioxidant activity of the tocopherols diminishes from to β- tocopherols. 16
Table 4.1 The % yield of the water melon seed oil 25
Table 4.2 The result of the physicochemical analysis of water melon seed oil 26
Table 4.3 The % yield of alkyd resin based on oil 26
Table 4.4 physicochemical properties of the prepared alkyd LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2.1 Trimethylolathane (Hydroxy methane) 2-methyl- 1,3- propanol and Trimethylol (Hydroxmethyl)-1,3, propanediol 9
Fig 2.2 Sorbitol 10
Fig 2.3 Reaction of fatty acid with alkyd 11
Fig 2.4 Lecithin (phosphotidyl) 14
Fig 2.5 Cephaline (phosphotidyl ethanol amine) 14
Fig 2.6 Sitosterols 15
Fig 2.7 Stigmasterol 15
Fig 2.8 Principal tocopherols 16
Fig 2.9 Alcoholysis of alkyd resin 17
Fig 2.9.1 Esterification of alkyd synthesis 17
Fig 2.9.2 Equation of the reaction of the Alkyd synthesis 18
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
List of table vi
List figures vii
Table of content vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 3
1.3 Objective of the study 4
1.4 Significance of the study 4
1.5 Scope of the study 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Origin of Alkyd Resin 5
2.2 Classification of Alkyd Resin 6
2.2.1 Drying (oxidizing) alkyds 6
2.2.2 Semi-drying alkyds 7
2.2.3 Non-drying (non-oxidizing) alkyds 7
2.3 Raw materials for alkyds resin synthesis 8
2.3.1 Polyhydric alcohols 8
2.3.2 Polybasic Acids 10
2.3.3 The triglyceride oils 11
188.8.131.52Composition of Vegetable Oils 13
2.4 Reactions involved in alkyd synthesis 17
CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.0 Materials and method 19
3.1 Materials 19
3.1 Apparatus 19
3.1.1 Reagents 19
3.2 Methods 19
3.2.1 Collection of samples 19
3.2.2 Procedure for extraction of Oil from seed of water melon 20
3.2.3 Determination of the percentage yield of water
mellon seed oil 20
3.2.4 Determination of the physicochemical properties of the oil (water melon) 20
3.2.5 Determination of the specific gravity of the oil 20
3.2.6 Determination of free fatty acid value 21
3.2.7 Determination of iodine value 22
3.2.8 Determination of the acid value 23
3.2.9 Preparation of the alkyd resin 23
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Results and discussion 25
4.1 Discussion 26
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 28
5.1 Conclusion 28
5.2 Recommendation 28
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Polymerization is one of the most industrial processes. Resins and emulsion are two main classes of polymer (Mark , 1964).
The term “alkyd” was originally used by kienle in 1927 to describe the reaction products of polyhydric alcohols and polybasic acids. Extensive commercialization of special classes of polymeric esters which are not recognised as alkyds has forced a more limited definition. For example, among the polymeric esters which are alkyds by kienle’s definition are the unsaturated polyesters polymerised with styrene and the saturated polyesters reacted with isocyanites.
The term “alkyd” now tends to specify polyesters. Products composed of polyhydric alcohols, polybasic acids, and fatty mono basic acids. These materials (alkyds) are used chiefly in the coatings industry where they form non-volatile binder (or vehicle) in the manufacture of paints and varnishes. In this industry, the term alkyd, alkyd resin, and alkyd solution are used interchangeably (Sanler,1998).
The term “modified alkyd” is associated with chemical modifications that are carried out during alkyd resin preparation and that incorporate chemical agents of types other than those included in the definition. For example, if the alkyd polyesters formation takes place in the presence of vegetable oil, the polyester product will possess fatty acids residues on its chain and the resin is called oil modified alkyd resin. On the other hand, when no fatty acids are used, or when they are completely replaced by other types of acids, the product can be considered as “oil-free” alkyds (Patlon,1972).
Alkyd resins are by far the most important class of coating resins. It is estimated that alkyd resins contribute about 70% to the conventional binders used in surface coating is largely due to their unique properties such as film hardness, durability gloss and gloss retention, resistance to abrasion, impacted on them through modification with drying oil (Patlon, 1962).
Alkyd resins are used in both clear and pigmented, industrial and trade coating to protect and decorate a wide variety of substances. The industrial coatings or finishes generally are applied during the manufacturing process of the item which they cover. Often, they are specifically formulated to meet both conditions desired for their application and the endless use of the article of manufacture. The industrial finishes include primers and top coats for refrigerators, furniture and electrical equipment. In view of the development of these items and sectors, the positive growth is expected for paint industry (Waters, 1955).
Further, the paint industry envisages a future expansion in view of development in corrosion resistance coatings, expansion in housing activity and other industry uses. The demands of alkyd resin being an ingredient in paint, varnish and printing ink industry would be linked with the paint industry.
There are many significant efforts that have been made to increase alkyd resin production. Many researchers have attempted to search the different sources for alkyd resin preparation. (Ikhuoria, 2004) studied enhancing the quality of alkyd resins using methyl esters of rubber seed oil in 2004.
A lot of alkyd resins were imported to Myanmar paint industries every year. In order to save foreign currency out flow, it is needed to produce alkyd resin in Myanmar. The oils that are mostly employed for alkyd resin synthesis are linseed oil, soya bean oil, dehydrated castor oil, fish oil and tall oil. Myanmar being rich in aquatic and terrestrial resources every state and division is pursuing the target of putting 500,000 acres under physic nut (castor oil) in the national development endeavours that are being carried out by the nation target (Mark,1964).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Alkyd resin has been reported to have various uses in coating and paint industries. This has prompted this research work on the production of alkyd resin using the seed of water melon (Citrullus Lanatus).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
· To extract oil from the seed of citrullus lanatus.
· To evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of the oil extracted from citrullus lanatus
· To use the seed oil of citrullus lanatus to produce alkyd resin.
· To determine the physicochemical properties of the alkyd resin produced from the oil of citrullus lanatus
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
The result of this research work would be useful in the production of alkyd resin from locally available raw material as well as create awareness on the economic potentials of the seed of citrullus lanatus which is regarded as a waste material in various parts of Nigerian societies.
1.5 Scope of the study:
Due to financial constraint, this research work is limited to the production of alkyd resin using the seed oil of citrullus lanatus.
i. Limited of to the extraction of the oil of citrullus lanatus.
ii. production of an oil derived alkyd resin from the oil of citrullus lanatus.
iii. Evaluation of properties of the produce the alkyd resin.