BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED FROM THREE DIFFERENT COMPANIES.
Bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feeds from three different companies in Enugu (Ave investment, Phinomar and Bora feed producing company) were studied. Four types of poultry feeds which include starter, grower, finisher and layer were examined using pour plate techniques. The culture media used were cled agar and salmonella – shigella agar (SSA). The contaminants isolated include Escherichia coil salmonella Spp and Proteus Spp. The microbial load of the feed sample was highest in layer feed type (140) followed by grower feed type having a total plate count of 138 and the lowest microbial count was gotten in starter feed type with 122 count. The study review E coli as the most predominant bacterial organism with 55 mean plate count and 42% followed by Proteus with 44 (33.6%) and lastly salmonella with 32 (24.4%). The results showed that the poultry feeds in general had bacteria contaminants.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The term poultry used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated bird kept for egg laying or meat production. These most typically are members of the super order Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes (which includes chickens, quaits and turkeys) and the family Anatidae (in order Anseriformes) Commonly known as “water fowl” (examples; domestic ducks, domestic geese and ecterim). Poultry also includes other birds which are killed for their meat, such as pigeons or doves or birds which are considered to be game, such as pheasants. Poultry comes from the French / Norman word Poul, itself derived from Latin word “Pullus”, which means “small animals” Poultry is the second most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38% (Raloff, 2003).
The species of poultry are aptable or can survive in different environments, therefore they are widely distributed in the world with great increase in population, the demand for animal protein become acute. To meet these demand and its development, rapid multiplying ones becomes necessary. Poultry has so many advantages over other domestically animals whose production is very much hindered by lack of fund, high temperature, diseases of and other lack of feed at certain period of the year.
The disease of poultry is like the disease of other animals, they may be caused by Pathogenic organisms, nutritional deficiency and from wound or cannibalism. Some of the diseases associated with the fowls locally include; new castle disease, Chronic respiratory disease, fowl typhoid, Coccidiasis and fowl pox diseases.
Livestock (Poultry) get infected when pathogenic organization passes to the susceptible animal through the following ways (Barnes et al., 2003).
1. Feed and contaminated water or water containing droping will help spread the organisms to fresh hosts, the feeding troughs and watering vessels also help to spread the disease if not separated.
2. Dropping or excretes: these materials are the gateway out for some stages of organisms to gout of the host and get to fresh animal hosts.
3. Close contact: some disease spread by contact, their agents may be external parasites or exogenous pathogens in which the nearness to the superior bird increase the chances of getting the organisms.
To prevent the pathogenic organism from getting into the body of poultry, attentions should be played to the factor that influence their infections and spread. First and foremost, they should have disease resisting stock, provide good shelter, clean rang, proper feeding and practicing the separation of unhealthy ones from the healthy ones, quarantining new stock. In case of poultry, the broader house should be 30m to 48m from old birds such that they can gets good feed and sunlight. They shouldn’t be allowed to get in contact with their droppings caging the pathogenic organisms. Sanitation is very important in poultry management by cleaning of water can and feeding troughs and finally disinfecting the stock to help reduce organic matter.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Poultry feeds are infected during processing, by handling, mixing of ingrediends and exposing the raw materials and finished products to the atmospheric micro-organism, therefore, high rate of poultry disease and death occur as a result of consummation of contaminated feed and unpurified water. Also when the healthy and unhealthy birds are fed – together from the same feeding trough and water vessels eventually the pathogenic and enteric organisms from infected ones may widely spread.
Bacterial organisms affects the essential requirement of the body, such as water, carbohydrate, fats, vitamin, minerals and protein, there by reducing the content of nutrient needed for the food to be palatable and easily digestible.
1.3 AIM/ OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To determine the incidence of bacterial infection which cause health hazard to the poultry.
2. To isolate contaminants from poultry feed
3. To identify contaminants isolated
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study have been justified by the need and safty of consuming chicken (white meat) which has low cholesterol but rich in protein than beef which has high cholesterol. Also, human and the world at large benefits from our poultry farms where we have the layers (egg producing chicks) and the broilers (heavy chicks) from consumption.
The poultry are rich in protein and amino acid needed for growth. Livestock feed are formulated to a ratio for different species and classes of poultry.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research will be limited to Enugu metropolis due to the cost of transportation, and also be limited to the available materials for carrying out the experimental work.