The bacteriological status of soil environment polluted with urine was analyzed, using standard microbiological methods.
The identification test of bacteria revealed the isolation of proteus spp. Pseudmonas spp, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteria and Staphylococcus aureus from the contaminated soil. Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus aureus were obtained from the polluted bathroom and klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Escherichia coli were isolated from the cleaned bathroom. Pathogenicity test carried out revealed that while all isolates from the polluted bathroom except E. coli to be pathogenic, only proteus from contaminated soil was found to be pathogenic amongst the isolates from contaminated and uncontaminated soil. Susceptibility tests from contaminated and uncontaminated soil susceptibility test revealed that among the disinfectants used for the study namely, Detol, Izal, Lysol and jik, Lysol was found to be effective against all the test pathogens. The study showed the diversity of pathogens in polluted environment and the efficacy of Lysol in decontaminating the polluted environment that harbour pathogenic organisms, but can be controlled through disinfection.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Aim of project 3
Literature review 4
MATERIAL AND METHODS
2.1 Sample collection 17
2.2.1 Nutrient agar 18
2.2.2 Macconkey agar 18
2.3.1 Isolation of total hetetrophic bacteria count 19
2.4 Identification of bacteria isolates 20
2.5 Gram reaction 20
2.6 Biochemical characterization of the isolates 21
2.6.2 Oxidase test 21
2.6.3 Indole test 22
2.6.4 Motility test 23
2.6.5 Citrate test 23
2.6.6 Spore stain test 24
2.6.7 Mannitol fermentation (Sugar) 25
2.6.8 Coagulase 25
2.6.9 Lactose fermentation 26
2.6.10 Urease test 26
2.7.1 Pathogenicity test 27
184.108.40.206 Medium preparation 27
220.127.116.11 Method of culture 28
2.7.2 Antimirobial susceptibility testing 28
18.104.22.168 Prparation of antibaceterial disc 29
3.1 Count of distinct colonies of the isolates 30
3.1.1 Microbial load of contaminated soil sample 30
3.1.2 Bacterial count for sample B 31
3.1.3 Microbial load for sample C (contaminated
3.1.4 Microbial load for sample D (cleaned bathroom 32
3.3 Microbiological analysis 33
3.3.1 Result of Pathogenicity Tests 33
3.3.2 Result of Antimicrobial susceptibility 35
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 38
4.1 Discussion 38
4.2 Conclusion 43
4.3 Recommendation 44
Urine is a liquid waste product from the kidney of both animals and humans. It is collected in the bladder and excreted through the urethra. As a waste liquid product, it contains some dissolved substances such as ammonia, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. These constitute the organic solids in the urine. Urine also contains inorganic dissolved substances such as sodium chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphate and sulfates (Cobire and Wewedo, 2002).
The dissolved substances in the urine can be utilized by microorganisms of various groups as nutrients whenever urine finds its way into the environment. This is evidenced by the fact that urine polluted environments usually have very strong odour, signifying that the biological oxygen demand (BOD) is high. This phenomenon is observe in toilets, bathrooms, street corners and fallow grounds. (Deni and Pennick, 1999).
The different groups of microorganisms can represent different microbial functions and activities. Some can be harmful relating to public health risk, or beneficial relating to positive economic value. Urine leach into ground and surface waters often with much of the nitrogen intact. When microorganisms in lakes and other surface waters consume the nitrogen. It results into a great bloom of growth. When this dies and decomposes, it pulls oxygen from the water or euthrophies, which can suffocate fish and other aquatic life. Underground nitrogen can seep into drinking water, posing a potential health hazard.
Urine contains micro pollutants such as synthetic hormones, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, that is mainly excreted via urine (Alder, 2002) and may be harmful to the ecosystems and human health (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Today, many micro pollutants reach the aquatic environments because their degradation in waste water treatment plant is poor (Barker and Jones, 2005).
More than just dirt hanging around the environment especially urine polluted is unhealthy.
This work plans to asses the level of bacterial building in urine contaminated campus environments and thus suggest control measures to prevent the invasion of our environment by bacterial pathogens especially the campus female hostel bathrooms which are usually polluted with urine.
1.2 AIM OF PROJECT
The aim of this work is to isolate bacteria from urine contaminated environments in additions, this work would attempt to find out whether the contaminated environments harbour pathogenic bacteria and thus, pose hazard to health.