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Science Lab Technology Project Topics and Research Materials




When one thinks about various musical sound he listened to daily he would realize the very important role played by some instrument include. The guitar, piano and violin, which operate on the principles of vibration of, stretched string. CF has therefore become necessary that it study the condition under, which stringed instrument vibrates to give high quality musical notes.

This study is basically the investigation of the laws governing the vibration of a stretched string, it is carried out by the use of SONOMETER.


Title Page







1.1            Introduction

1.2            Aim and objective of the study

1.3            Hypothesis

1.4            Statement of problem of the study

1.5            Significance of the study

1.6            Limitation of the study



2.1            Literature review

2.2            Meaning of wave

2.3            Types of waves

2.4            Definition

2.5            Production of sound

2.6            Characteristics

2.7            Loudness

2.8            Mode of vibration of stretched string

2.9            Overtone of stretched string

2.10       Force of vibration and resonance

2.11       Calibration of the constructed meter rule

2.12       Mounting of the calibrated meter rule



3.1            Materials

3.2            Methodology



4.1            Verification of the law

4.2            Frequency of vibration is inversely proportional to the square roof of tension

4.3            Frequency of vibration is inversely proportional to the square roof of mass



5.1            Conclusion and recommendation

5.2             Experimental problem and precaution

5.3            Application of stretched string vibration





1.1                                         INTRODUCTION

Sonometer is an instrumental used in the verification of the law of stretched string. It can be classified into two, based on how the tension in the wire can be adjusted, hence, spring and weight types. The weight types is getting absolute and is therefore giving way for the spring type, this is because the former introduce its weight error in the system unlike the later which its tension in the wire is read directly from the spring balance.  

The verification of the law became inevitable since most of the musical instrument of string. It was then standard in the 5th century B.C when Pythagoras found out that the retch of a mole united by a vibrating string depend on the length of the string, other condition removing constant. After a gap of twenty-one countries, Galileo showed that the pitch of note depend upon the frequency of the vibration causing it.

Working largely as a result of Galileo’s inspiration, mersennes. In 1636, showed how the frequency of the emitted note by a stretched string depended not merely on the length, but also on the thickness tension and density of the string (1613). A British man call Nelkon M. invested on the use of sonometer.


1.2                        AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

To design and construct a sonometer which will used to verify that the frequency of vibrating (F) is inversely proportional the vibrating length for a given tension per unit mass and also to verify that the frequency of vibrating of


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