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Enugu, Nigeria
Enugu State

Science Lab Technology Project Topics and Research Materials




This project work which is all about the fungal infestation of bakery product BREAD, explain the kind or type of fungal organisms that are responsible for the  spoilage on contamination of bread. The infestation of fungal organism on bread depends on the kind and number of the agent present and upon the environment about them. this statement makes it clear that micro organism infest foods having suitable environment condition for their microbial activity. This project work is centered on knowing the fungal micro-organisms that infests bread which emails the isolation and identification of the fungal organisms, the source of coutanmination a known standardized system called hazard analysis critical control point which  ensures hygienically produced breads. The material and method email the collection of bread samples from five different shops AT Artisan market, Enugu, the method used is the isolation technoloque and the identification of filamention fungi and yeast by wet mount and fluorescence microscopy. The result obtained were gotten by counting the colonies grown on the culture medium (Nutrient agar) and the mean of duplicate  was then calculated, some fungal micro organisms seen viewed unbder the microscope are as follows;


Mucon SpP

Aspergillus     flarus

Aspergillus fumigatus

Penicillium Spp

Rhizopus Spp













Table 1       Composition of the medium

Table 2       Daily observation of bread at room temperature

TABLE 3    Fungal load of the cultured bread

Table 4       Cultural and morphological characteristics















Title page                                                                               





List of table                                                                                      

Table of contents          




1.1            Background information

1.2            Aims and objective of study

1.3            Hypothesis

1.4            Statement of problem

1.5            Significance of study

1.6            Limitation of study



2.1            Composition of bread and its requirement

2.2            Sources of contamination

2.3            Infestation of bakery products

2.4            Types of spoilage in bread

2.5            The hazard analysis critical control point

2.6            Degradation and deterioration of bread

2.7            Mycotoxin

2.8            Preservative




3.1            Sample collection

3.2            Material used for the preparation of the medium

3.3            Preparation the medium

3.4            Isolation and identification procedure

3.4.1    Isolation method

3.5            Identification of fungi



4.1            Result

4.2            Discussion



5.1            Conclusion

5.2            Recommendation





1.0            INTRODUCTION


Food can be contaminated with spoilage on pathogenic organisms ( micro). Infestation of these fungal organisms spoil the product so that it is not fit to eat; it also changes the taste so that the product is not desirable. The concept of food infestation of fungal organisms is based on the consipteration for fiutres of consumption. Infestation is defined as the over presence alone has led to its growth and microbial activity. Pathogenic organisms however can cause food poisoning. Food poisoning can arise  through infatuation of food by organisms (micro) which secrete toxins which B their consumed. The cost of  fungal infested bread resulting to  spoilage is also  great with loss of money due to wastage of the raw materials. Also considering the usefulness of this product in the community with the management of money being spent it has also helped in the sense that since it is regarded as a fast food it is being bought and consumed directly without further preparations done.  Effect of contaminated bread in the society can lead to an epidemic  of gastrointestinal disorder  where by that particular environment that consumed the contaminate bread become affected there by developing stomach upset. As a result of this a lot of consideration should be given to breads that are sent into the community to be sold and this  is done by the standardized system called HACCP ie hazards Analysis critical control point. This method is now  generally  considered as a choice for ensuring safety of foods  (jay 1996 de Boer and Beumer 1999) hazzard analysis critical control point involves identifying places in the production process where hazzard could occur. i.e. the CCp (critical control point” and putting monitoring procedures in place to prevent these hazards occurring even with this system in place samples still need to be tested  for the presence of micro organism.


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