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The Incidence Of Salmonella And Escherchia Coli In Livestock (poultry) Feeds

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THE INCIDENCE OF SALMONELLA AND ESCHERCHIA COLI IN LIVESTOCK (POULTRY) FEEDS

 

ABSTRACT

 

          This work is aimed at determining the incidence of bacterial injections such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli which cause health hazards to the  poultry in their feeds.  Sample feed were obtained from commercial mash operation/ pellet mill operation at New heaven and top feed at Ogbete main market Enugu.  The samples were screened for total aerobic bacteria count, total coliform count and the characterization of the bacteria isolates carried out while indole test and citrate test were used to confirm the presence of Escherichia coli. The confirmation of salmonella isolates on Mac conkey agar was also done.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                      

Certification                                                                           

Dedication                                                                    

Acknowledgement                                                        

Abstract                                                                        

Tables of contents                                                         

List of tables                                                                           

List of tables                                                                           

 

CHAPATER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                  

1.1     Statement of problem                                          

1.2     Aims and objectives of the study               

1.3     Limitation of study                                             

1.4     Hypotheses                            

 

                            

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                       

2.1     Nutritional value                                       

2.2     Economic importance                                         

2.3     Disease cause by microorganisms             

2.4     Livestock (poultry) feeds manufacturer     

2.5     Nutrient /feed requirements                       

2.6     Nutritive values of eggs                             

2.7     Standard of feed quality                            

2.8            Types of poultry feeds & march ingredients 

2.9            Quality control of feeds

                                     

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and method                                         

3.1     Sample collection                                      

3.1.1  Microbiological analysis                                     

3.2     Characterization of bacateria                     

3.2.1  Gram’s staining reaction                                     

3.2.2  Indole test                                                           

3.2.3    Methyl red (Mr.) voges proskaver (vp) test 

3.2.4    Citrate test                                                          

3.2.5    Carbohydrate fermentation                       

3.2.6    Motility test                                                                  

3.2.7    Oxidase test        

                                                         

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Result                                                                           

4.1     Total aerobic bacterial count                     

4.2     Coliform bacterial count                                     

4.3     Characterization of coliform isolates

4.4            Characterization of salmonella isolates

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion                                                                    

Conclusion                                                                    

Recommendation                                                          

References                                                                     

 

CHAPTER SIX           

6.0     Appendixes                                                                  

6.1            Hard wares

6.2            Glass wares

6.3            Reagent

6.4            Composition for bacteriological culture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table I:       Total aerobic bacterial counts           55

Table ii:      Coliform bacterial counts                           56

Table iii      Biochemical characteristics of

Isolates (Escherichia coli)                  57

Table iv:     Biochemical characteristics of

isolates (Salmonella)                         58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figure I:      chemical composition of the various

 constituents of the raw materials used                23

Figure II:     Flow chart of poultry feed                          24

Figure III:    Energy, protein and Amino acid

requirement of chicken                               27

Figure iv:    March Ingredient                                        36

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

2.0     INTRODUCTION

          The term poultry used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated birds kepts for egg or meat production.  These includes chickens (domestic fowls),  Grallus domestics, turkeys, ducks and geese.  This project will deal largely with the chicken which are the most common domestic fowl.  The species of poultry are aptable or can survive in different environments therefore, they are widely distributed in the world, with great increase in population, the demand for goods especially protein food become acute.  To meet the demand for animal protein and its development, rapid multiplying ones becomes very necessary. Poultry has so  many advantages over other domesticated animal whose production is very much hindered by lack of money, high temperature, disease and lack of good at certain periods of the year.

          The diseases of poultry is like the disease of other animals may be caused by: a. pathogenic organisms like bacteria and viruses, protozoa, worms and some members of arthropods

b.                 Nutritional deficiency, (c) From wound or cannibalism

The following diseases are usually associated with the fowls locally

1.                 New castle disease

2.                 Chronic respiratory diseases

3.                 Fowl typhoid

4.                 Coccidiosis

 

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