DETRIMENTAL EFFECT OF PETROLEUM OIL FROM MECHANIC WORKSHOPS ON CROPS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS
The study was to determine the determinately effects of petroleum on plants (tomatoes). The petroleum was collected from automobile workshop at New Haven road in Enugu Metropolis. The soil used were loamy and sandy soil treated with different quantity of petroleum 0ml (control), 25ml, 50ml, 75ml. the results revealed that the germination days varied between 4-5 days with the exception of 75ml treatments, which germinated between 6-8 days after planting. The number of seeds germinated in both soils decreased by 37.0, 25.0 and 12.5 respectively. The results on growth of tomato seedlings also showed an increased in stem-height in control and decrease in stem and height in treated soils.
1.1 Background of the Study
Various activities in crude oil exploration, exploitation, storage and transportation lead to spillage of oil to environment (Agbogidi, 2006). The spilled oil pollutes soils and solids to be less useful for agricultural activities with soil dependent organisms, being adversely affected. The effects of crude oil on the growth and performance of plants have been reported in many researches. These effects have been observed to occur due to the interference of the plant uptakes of nutrients by petroleum and the infavourable soil conditions due to pollution with crude oil (place, 2009). It has been reported that plant and soils microbes complete for the little nutrient available in soils that are not rich like that polluted with crude oil thereby suppressing the growth of plants in such soils (Osuji, 2004). However, it is generally know that when solids are not suitable for plant growth are arguemented with manure, inorganic fertilizer in a crude oil polluted soil, enhance the growth and performance of plants in such polluted soil. Although the performance of plants as reported by Osugj (2004) my not be as good as when the soil is in its normal condition.
It is therefore necessary to investigate the impact of petroleum in plant so as to be aware of the effects and what the farmer can do in case if such suition occur (Okolo, 2008) contamination of soil by crude oil spills is a wide spread environmental problem that can often requires clearing up of the contaminated sites (Akinola, 2004). Disposal of oil based waste, oil spill from well below outs and pipeline ruptures are the most common sources of petroleum contamination. (crude oil from different source, pipeline, mechanic workshops, well blow out affects plants adversely by creating conditions which make the essential nutrients like nitrogen and oxygen needed for plant growth unavailable for them (David, 2004). It has been recorded by some researchers that oil contamination causes slow rate of germination in plant (George, 2004). This effect could be due to the oil which acts as a physical barrier preventing or reducing access of the seeds to water and oxygen. Some plants can render harmless, extract of stabilize a contaminant in soil, thus making it unavailable for other organisms and reduced environmental hazards in the process termed phytoremediation.
Regardless of source, petroleum’s effects when released into the environmental are similar for instance when burned, petroleum release carbondioxide, a green house gas. Along with the burning of coal, petroleum combustion is the largest contributor to the increase in atmospheric CO2. Atmospheric carbondioxide has risen steadily since the industrial revolution to the current levels of the time. The incontrollable use of petroleum could potentially caused earth temperature to increase by nearly one degree Celsius (Lorris, 2003). This raise in temperature has reduced the Artic ice cap to 2,800.000km2, smaller than ever recorded. Because of this melt, more oil reserved have been revealed. Control of oil spill is difficult, required adhoc methods and often a large amount of man power. The chopping of bombs and incendiary devices from air craft on SS Torrey Canvon week produced poor results modern techniques would include pumping the oil from the wreck, like in the prestige oil spill or agricultural land (George, 2004). Through crude oil is predominantly composed of various hydrocarbons, certain nitrogen heterocyclic compounds such as pyridine, picoline and gasoline are reported as contaminants associated with crude, as well as facility processing oil shale or coal and have also been found at legacy wood treatment sites. These compounds have a very high water solubility and tend to dissolve and more with water (Rusell, 2003). Certain naturally occurring bacteria, such as micrococcus, Arthrobacter and Rhodococcus have been shown to degrade these contaminants (Rusell, 2003).
1.2 Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is to verify the detrimental effect of petroleum from mechanics workshop on crops in Enugu metropolis.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
For decades patrolmen has detrimental effects by creating anaerobic condition on the environmental, thisleadstothestudyeffectof petroleum on crops. So that people will be aware of the effect of petroleum on crops, especially the engineer who disposed petroleum any where in the farm along the street.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study help the populace to know the detrimental effect of petroleum, on crops. it will also minimize the rate people dispose petroleum to unwanted places as a result of knowing the effect.
1.5 Limitation of the Study
This study limits on the detrimental effect of petroleum from mechanic workshop on crops in Enugu metropolis.