DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HEADLAMP OPERATED GATE OPENING SYSTEM.
This project work deals on the design and implemental of a headlamp operated gate opening system capable of operating a gate/door using the particular headlamp only. This system tends to climate the thresh associated with manual, opening and closing of gates and boosts the security of the entity this electric system is realized in two functional units the transmitter and the receiver. The transmitter is realized using a timed radio frequency transmitter module alongside a laser, diode (the headlamp) the receiver is configured using a tuned, radio frequency receiver module which is used to power an optical light sensor circuit. The output of the sensor is conditioned by Quad -2- input Schmitt trigger NAND gate 7413132 which generates a control logic that is used to bias an NPN bipolar junction transistor. This driver energized an electromagnetic relay that switches/actuates, the prime-mover that pulls the door lover (once the transmitter button is pressed, it transmits an RF signal to the receiver installed at the gate and switches on the laser diode that function as the light source. At the receiving end, the output signal of the TRF receiver supplies power to the optical light detector circuit that energies the relay on receiving visible light from the transmitter. The gate/door opens, and closes on its own even if the light goes off this system, is rebost and rugged and will sell like a German burger if appropriately commercialized.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page -- -- -- -- ---- -- -- -- -- i
Approval page -- -- -- -- ---- -- -- -- ii
Dedication -- -- -- -- ---- -- -- -- iii
Acknowledgement -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- iv
Abstract -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- v
Table of contents -- -- --- -- -- -- -- vi
1.1.1. Background of the study -- -- --- -- -- -- 1
1.1.2. Problem statement -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2
1.1.3. Aims and objectives -- -- -- -- -- -- 3
1.1.4. Significant of the project -- -- -- -- -- -- 4
1.1.5. Scopes of the study -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 5
1.1.6. Project report organization -- -- -- -- -- -- 5
2.1 Literature review -- -- --- -- -- -- -- 7
2.1.1. Review and the Analysis of the existing system -- -- -- --
2.1.2 Historical development of the project -- --- -- -- 9
2.1.2 Areas of application of the project -- -- -- -- 11
2.1.3 Areas of applications of the project - - - - - - - - - - 18
2.1.4 Tuned radio frequency (TRF) transmitter and receiver - - - - - - - 18
2.2 System component description -- -- --- -- -- 20
2.3 Resistor -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 21
2.4 Different symbols of resistors -- -- --- -- -- -- 24
2.5 Determination of the value of a resistor -- -- - - -- - - - 5
2.6 Capacitors -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2.7 Transformers -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- 30
2.8 Diode -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 31
2.9 Types of diode -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- 32
2.10 IC linear voltage regulator -- -- --- -- -- -- 33
2.11 Transistor static switch and electromagnetic relay -- -- 37
2.12 The optical light sensor using LDR -- -- -- -- 41
2.13 Design considerations -- -- -- -- -- -- 44
2.14 Applications -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 45
2.15 Servomotor -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 47
2.16 Device without feedback -- -- -- -- -- -- 48
3.1 Description of the system building blocks 49
3.2 Block diagram development into working circuit 50
3.3 System design specifications 52
3.4 The principle of operation of the system 53
Implementation, testing and result 57
4.1 Implementation 57
4.2 Testing 58
4.3 Result 59
4.4 Bill of engineering quality 60
5.1 Summary of achievement 62
5.2 Problems encountered and solution 63
5.3 Conclusion 64
1.1.1. Background of the Study
Security is everybody’s business all over the world. And this proves more challenging to a third world and terrorist nation like Nigeria. Security of lives and properties can be achieved in wired or wireless mode. Owing to the incessant kidnapping incidents especially in the south east part of Nigeria, there is utmost need to secure any entity (homes/offices/institutions/factories) against such happenstance by coming up with a better technique of security the entrance gate to any entity such that only the users can get access into it. Gate locking techniques abound but each has an associated shortcomings. This menace gave way to carrying out researches on the best way to customize gates (entrances) into any entity. This led me to undertake the project design and implementation of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owners headlamp/valid users headlamp can operate it. This will boost the security of lives and properties.
1.1.2. Problem Statement
Due to the high rate of kidnapping and armed robbery in Nigeria, security of lies and properties as everybody’s concern. Most especially in the south-east region of the country, kidnappers break into people’s compound and abduct them for a ransom. This is due mainly because of poor/no secure entrance into the compound.
In a bid to combat this menace, a highly secured gate opening system should be developed and put in place. This quest motivated me to embark on a project research on design and implementation of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owners headlamp can operate the gate from a distance of nearly 50m. This system will ensure that only one user or selected users can operated the gate. A system of this nature will boost the security of the compound.
1.1.3. Aim And Objectives of the Project/Study
The aim of this project design and implemental of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s head lamp can operate the gate.
The objectives of this project are:
i. To develop a prototype of a real life system which can open and close a gate using photo electric effect and radio frequency technology
ii. To design a system which is not micro-program control.
iii. To design a system which can be powered using a regulated power supply unit (PSU) synthesized from NEPA.
iv. To design a module which can be use electromagnetic relay to actuate an AC motor.
1.1.4. Significant of the Project
This project work signified a lot in computer engineering. This project can be used/employed as a security gate in scheduled area like INEC office clubs and gardens.
It can be used as a security gate in luxury homes.
It can be used as a security door in strong rooms.
It can be applied in security gates in military barracks and in prison yard to ensure maximum security.
If properly modified, it can be used in highly sensitive areas to allow only the authorized users to get access into some areas.
1.1.5. Scopes of the Study
This project work focuses on the design and construction of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s car headlamp can operate the gate. It covers TRF (receiver and transmitter), opto-coupler using LDR, prime mover and other components used in the system. It also x-rays the mode of calculation of the various basic parameters design.
The following are limitations of this project:
1. This project work is a prototype of the proposed system due to the ratings of the material used.
2. The proposed system uses a headlamp configured with Radio – Frequency (RF) module to operate the gate.
3. This prototype does not cater for the specs of the real life system.
4. The receiver is installed on the gate where its light sensor can be in point-to-point arrangement with the car headlamp.
5. The system works at all times provided it is in good working condition.
6. The receiver is only AC powered while the receiver is automotive.
This system cannot work in the dark if the vehicle headlamp is not directly cast on it or faulty.
1.1.7. Project Report Organization
This project report is presented in six chapters to appropriately illustrate the steps involved in its implementation.
Chapter one introduce the design overview objectives and significance of the project. Chapter two is basically the literature review and some theories relevant to the design. Chapter three system design analysis. Chapter four is on the system design analysis while chapter five elaborates on the implementation, testing and result. Finally chapter six summarizes the entire theories and recommendations.
1.1.8. Definition of Terms
1. Opto coupler: this is an arrangement of visible light or infrared (IR) and its detector in point-to-point manner for communication. It is also called opto-isolator.
2. Radio frequency (RF): this is the rate of oscillation within the range of 3khz – 300 Ghz in the electromagnetic wave spectrum.
3. Control logic generator: this module also called the signal conditioning unit, generates the logic which is needed to bias a transistor driver or to trigger/clock a resettable IC. It is realized with schmit trigger NAND gate.
4. Laser Diode: This is an improved light emitting diode (LED) which operates based on light amplification by stimulated emission of Radiation (LASER). It consumes less power. It is used as the source of visible light.
5. Induction kick-back diode: This is a diode that is connected across the terminals (coil) of an inductive load to prevent induction kick-back when it is switched off/de-energized.
6. Resonance: This is a phenomenon which occur when a vibrating body sets another body into vibration until both vibrate at the same natural frequency. It is the principle behind RF communication.
7. Servomotor: It is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position. It is used/employed in this project to pull the door lever.
8. Bias: This is the appropriate logic needed to turn on a semiconductor device.