TELEVISION TOBACCO ADVERTS AND TEENAGE SMOKING HABIT: ( A SURVEY OF YOUTHS IN OWERRI MUNICIPALITY
This study is a survey on Television Tobacco Adverts and its influence on Teenage Smoking habit. It uses the Youths in Owerri Municipality in Imo State of Nigeria as its sample.
The study uses the questionnaire as a survey method for the collection of data from the sample and population. The sample percentage model is adopted in vesting collected data.
The research reveals that Television Tobacco adverts reinforces the habit of youths towards tobacco. It shows that a combination of TV, Interpersonal and Mass Communication, Influence group activities tremendously.
APPROVAL PAGE III
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 4
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 5
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 7
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION 8
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 8
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION9
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS 10
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 11
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13
2.1 SOURCES OF LITERATURE 13
2.2 THE LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.3 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW 20
3.1 RESEARCH METHOD 27
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 28
3.3 RESEARCH SAMPLE 29
3.4 MEASURING INSTRUMENT 29
3.5 DATA COLLECTION 30
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS 32
3.7 EXPECTED RESULTS 32
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 34
4.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 43
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION FURTHER STUDY
5.1 SUMMARY 47
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 48
This is made possible via adverts. According to Marshal Muluhan, the medium is the message?. Therefore every advertise must decide on where to place its advertisements. The alternatives are the adverts media, the means by which the Message is Communicated to the target audience. This “media selection” decision is related to the target audience, type of product, nature of the message, campaign objectives, available budget and the cost of the alternative media: Erie, Kerin, Steven and Rudelius (pg. 535). In any case, the advertise chooses the media that will maximize exposure and minimize cost.
Among the media, the TV exercises the greatest impact (Pfau et al 1990). This impact is as a result of its audio-visual quality. This quality distinguishes it from other media. An earlier and perhaps more persuasive influence on children’s development is TV. In the words of Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch “Persuasion is the only true intellectual process”.
By the age of sixteen (16), the average child has spent more time watching television than attending school: E Mavis and Parke (Pg. 145).
Television affects children not only through the programmes that they watch but also by the commercials and adverts that accompany television programmes: Huston et al (1992). Harlow Gale considered adverts an entirely new field for psychological work and one of great and increasing importance.
Mass Communication Media, Supported by adverts are also accused of satiating the public with the most superficial information and entertainment. In doing this, it is said that they have encouraged what is popular rather, than what is good. And they have yostred material rather than spiritual and cultural values. And television is the medium most frequently cited: Wright, Warner, and Zeigler.
On the average, children watch nearly 20,000 television commercials each year: He Herington and Ross (p9. 526). As George Gerbner, a prominent TV researcher notes” The more time one spends living in the world of TV, the more likely one is to report perceptions of social reality which can be traced to TV’S representation of life and society. As Greyserso well puts it, of all the social issues involving adverts, the broadcast has to do with its impact on life styles. Hence exposure to aggressive models on air can increase children’s subsequent aggressive behavior Parke and Slaby 1983, Perry 1990.
1.1 BACKAGROUND OF THE STUDY
Tobacco smoking is an age long habit which has attracted a lot of criticisms due to its consequences on health. Studies also indicate that most teenagers, who smoke, suffer health and increased risk of heart attacks: The Guardian New Spaper Nov. 8, 2001.
The World Health Organization (W.H.O) is worried by the spate of infections suffered by smokers. It has therefore made it mandatory for cigarette manufacturers to ass health warnings to their advertisements such as “smokers are liable to die young”. The warning is seen on every packet of cigarette adverts message.
However, these warnings seem not to be assimilated by habitual smokers. The manufacturers themselves are unrelenting in formulating new strategies aimed at enhancing the appeal of their adverts themes.
Teenagers are often influenced by celebrities, environment and fashion. Some equally are influenced by sex appeals. Sex appeals suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user to the opposite sex: Robert A. Baron and Donn Byrne.
All the same, one might wish to know the relationship between cigarette advertisement on television and smoking habits in teenagers. Also, one would like to know other factors that interplay with this relationship. These form the focus of the study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The increasing rate of teenage smokers in Nigeria and probably the world over has introduced both social and economic problems in the society. Most people are of the view that advertisement has contributed immensely to this trend.
Our problem therefore is to evaluate the extent to which tobacco advertisement on television has aggravated this trend of cigarette smoking as a habit.
Consequently, there must be a relationship between the adverts messages of cigarette manufactures and natural appeals to teenagers that make this group a sure market for the manufactures.
It is this impulsive tendency to smoke cigarette based on information about the products that has aroused a research interest on the stated impact study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research work is aimed of the following:
a. To create awareness on the unwholesome influence of Television Tobacco Adverts.
b. To determine the public perception of advertisement messages.
c. To examine the attitude of the young/teenage smokes based on the products’ television commercials.
d. To determine low television adverts as a medium of information and message dissemination permeated the smoking habit/lifestyle of the public especially the teenagers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Despite several counsels, teenagers are often adamant to recognize the
reason behind anti-smoking campaigns. To them, identification with peers, or a coping behavior to stabilize emotional disturbances. Besides every other factor, cigarette advertisement has a role in influencing teenagers.
This study therefore is significant in that it creates awareness on the influence of Tobacco Adverts on TV. Thus, the likelihood is great that we shall see greater control by government, the media and advertisers of television advertisement aimed at youths and the time they may be aired.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this research, a number of questions are
Pertinently asked, thus:
1. How influencing are the TV advertisement appeals?
2. What is the public perception of these advertisement messages?
3. What feedback or responses do cigarette manufacturers receive from teenage smokers based on the products’ television commercials?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1 Tobacco advertisement on television influences teenage smoking habit.
Ho Tobacco advertisement on television does not influence teenage smoking habit.
H2 Through tobacco adverts on television some of the public are not-well informed and had came to realize the negative effect of tobacco smoking on their health.
Ho In spite of the fact that there is tobacco adverts on television, some of the public are yet to realize the negative effect of tobacco smoking on their health.
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINTION
TOBACCO: Leaves, which are dried, cured and used for smoking (in pipes, cigars and cigarettes) or chewing or as snuff. But for the purpose of this study tobacco equals cigarette.
ADVERTISING: The American Marketing Association A. M. A recommends this definition of advertising “Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of products, services or ideas, goods by an identified sponsor”.
TEENAGE: Young boys and girls in their teens. This is within the age bracket of 13 – 19 but is extended to 13 – 22 for the purpose of this study.
SMOKING: Activity or habit of smoking cigarette etc.
HABIT: Thing that a person does often and almost without thinking, especially something that is hard to stop doing.
Some of the assumptions of this study are:
1. That without television tobacco adverts, many teenagers may not be lured into smoking.
2. That also, if people who are neurotic see and hear the warming about the negative impact of cigarette smoking will desist from the practice of smoking.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of this research work, the researcher encountered some difficulties among which are: Time, Finance, Negative attitude of respondents etc.
TIME: Given that this work is being carried out alongside the second semester examination, the researcher had very difficult and insufficient time to effectively dot he research work.
FINANCE: Financial constraints played its role too. Here was not enough money to source out all the necessary materials for the work.
NEGATIVE ATTITUDE OF THE RESPONDENTS: Some of the respondents were when the researcher was making effort to elicit same.
Eric Berkowitz, Roger .A. Kerin, Hartley and Rudelius 1994 Marketing.
Fourth Edition, Published by –Von Hoffmann Press P.Fan Micheal et al 1993: Persuasive Communication Campaign.
John S. Wright, Daniel S. Warner, Winter Jr and Zeigler 1977: Advertising Fourth Edition, Mc Graw Hill Book Company.
Mavis E. Hetherington and Ross D. Parke 1993: Child Psychology A
Contemporary Viewpoint, Fourth Edition, Mc Graw-Hill Inc.
The Guardian Newspaper: Thursday Nov. 8, 2001, Natural Health Pg. 39.
Robert A. Baron and Donn Byrne 1993: Understanding Human Interaction.
Fourth Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. U.S.A Advanced Learners Dictionary.