EFFECT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN ON THE HIV AIDS MENACE IN NIGERIA
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media as had been established can provide for audience members information on Varity of issue. By emphasizing certain topic stressing particular interpretation and projects specific themes the media creates some distorted impression with their “ definition” portraying reflection of the real society ie if sexual promiscuity is regularly portrayed as widely practices and accepted in this sense, the viewers may accept such definition as normative in the society because of media definition when somebody defines his/ her own over behavior in such a situation norms internalized from media sources may guide his/ her conduct.
The media has gone a long way in teaching people some behavioral practices and pervading them to internalize the norm. the presence of media has attended the nature of societal communication norms
Large advance has concentrated on the media to provide a continuos flow of news entrapment political commentaries and other types of messages people depend on te media for various forms of gratification open content and if denied such communication they feel deprived and show (Benelson 1950:887-898) the potential effect of the media in shaping attitudes and behaviors of people has been the subject of considerable debate because many faction both good and bad aspects modify media influence. It is clear that the media to have at least and indirect influence on people attitudes and this is by making them aware of events outside their immediate experience / knowledge.
We have learned through research that the images and world carried by media determines within the limitation posed by intervening factors opinions of people and this actions woodier wilson 1998” said “unless you get the right thing go wrong it is believed that the perfect world there is often a vital step to finding the cure for many social ills.
In this it is believed that extensive coverage and true information from media houses on the Hiv / AIDS campaign will reach and perhaps touch on the sexual habits of youths particularly in Enugu environs.
The backgrounds of this study reflect that this epidemic is called Hiv/ Aids when a disease is sexually transmitted the public and efforts to eradicate it are fortified because of its effect to the society. As at present one may say that AIDS is our published, it is the worst disease to have struck human rale since the plaque of the 14th century.
Some health experts are saying that this will cause even more deaths and destruction then the black plague while experts are looking for remedy to this dreadful disease others claim to have the capability and even cure for Aids victim but was said to have lacked scientific proofs. Mean while statistic should that is million people are with this disease and do not know it for year (VAN IMPT 1987 P.1)
1.1 HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF HIV/ AIDS
The devastating disease “acquired immune deficiency syndrome” (AIDS ) and human immune virus (HIV ) came into the world in 1981 when Dr Michael Gottle of the university of California noticed unusual disease “Pnemocystiscarini prieumonia “ in four patients that were homosexuals and all below 40years age (Njoku, 1989) .
The world health organization (WHO) explained it to be a virus of “undermined geographic origin” the first case of HIV / AIDS were identified in the U.S.A in 1981 and the disease was first recognized in Uganda in 1982, but cases of it had been observed in the early 1970’s before it was fully identified. The virus causing it HIV – was discovered in 1983 it was not up unit march 1986 that the second type of AIDS virus named HIV –2 were discovered (Njoku obi 1989) the first confirmed Aids case in African was reported in 1984 in Nairobi kenya apparently AIDS came from green monkeys in Africa. This is the theory and scientific proof and it moves to what is known as the “species barrier” from animal to humans this has terrible effect on human and its gotten through monkeys but or bestiary (sexual activity between a human and an animal) but the shocking thing is that one person of American has committed such acts with animals (VAN IMPT 1987:29)
It is estimated that among couples where one partner is a carrier there is one in four chances that if carriers is male he will infect the female and one in ten possibility that the female will infect the male (THE CUARDIAN JULY 2 1992) prognosis (force cast of problem development ) current statistical report suggest that if a person becomes HIV positive (A) there is a 60 tendency of developing in AIDS within 10 years of diagnosis. The figure is based on studies of group of HIV individuals who were inflected 10 years ago. The remaining 40% many suffer health problem such as skin and genital diseases one as person has been diagnosed as having full blown AIDS life expectancy is an average of 20 months ( THE GUARDIANS, JULY 2, 1992)
HIV /AIDs is common homosexual intravenous drug abuser hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusion and heterosexual partner of AIDS victim. Among the risk groups Homo’s constitute about 75% of the victims’ intravenous drug abusers constitute about 15% and the remaining 10% is distributed among other groups (Njoku obi1989)
It takes on the average of 29 months and 12 months between exposure to the virus and manifestation of AID in adults and children respectively. The virus can however, remain dormant in an individual for up to Aid in children partly explain the time high estimate risk of AIDS is children compared to adults although their immune system and blood value may be relevant says Prof. Njoku (Njoku obi 1989)
THE NIGERIAN SITUATION
On the 24th of June1986, the then honorable minister for health Prof. ransom kuti, uncapurated the national “Expert advisory committed on AIDS (NEACA) to advice him on the statue of AIDS in the country and possibly measure to control it’s spread up to the end of 1988, NEACA has screened over 25,000 person which proved positive for.
The first person to die of AID was a thirteen years old girl who was discovered to be Hiv carries in 1996 there was total infection of AIDS victim which toll up to 22.6 million’ where as 6.1million died of this AIDS. And if the epidemic is unchecked the figure will go up by the tear 2005. Over 300 people infected daily 3% are male while the remaining 7% are female (THE GUARDIANS JULY 31, 2000 )
Last week it was reported to deputy governor of cross river state chief John Okpat that 150 person tested positive in the others state of the federation.
Obviously, AIDS is no respecter of person. Any body can fall victim to it at any time except of one play safe by using condom or by abstaining totally from anything that will expose one to the disease or victim. earlier researches done or this subject have shown that the greatest numbers infected are from the age of 20- 40 yrs. This disease that touches the most intimate and most private past of human lives without vaccines for prevention and cure demands our greatest concern effort and our utmost attention.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The role of mass media in a society cannot be over emphasized. It gives beyond the ordinary art and science of new gathering and dissemination to shaping opinions and attitude of people accurate analysis and interpretation of news event through their information education entertaining and socializing function the mass media affect people attitude and behavior (Graham mitten 1983 32 )
In this topic however the effect of mass media campaign on HIV /AIDS menace in Nigeria is knowledge acquire through frequency of firm, and coverage of campaigns behavior instincts and knowledge of sexuality supporting a programme and other factors are employed to measure persuasion campaign effectiveness. In view of there programmes it therefore becomes necessary to take a had look at the role of the media in the HIV / AIDS menace in our society especially in Enugu metropolis.
However research is a systematic search of knowledge facts with the primary aim of finding solution to existing problem. Proper identification of the problem (s) steaminess the direction of the study. Therefore the problem this work aims at solving are
Research work aim at solving are.
a. To know the effectiveness of media toward informing people on the ills of HIV/AIDS
b. To determine the major sources of information regarding to HIV /AIDS
c. To effect exposure to HIV/AIDS campaign on the sexual behavior of the people in Enugu metropolis.