This study is aimed at identifying the problems of development-policy making in Obudu local government area of Cross River state. The theoretical framework adopted in this study is the planning theory propounded by Fainstein (2000). This research adopted the survey method given the nature of data. The population of the study consists of the staff of Obudu local government of Cross River state which is one hundred and eight seven (187) respondents. The sample technique adopted in the study is the simple random sampling technique. Data was analyzed using tables and frequencies to analyze the demographic characteristics of the respondents and Chi-Square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses. Findings of the study reveal that there are problems affecting development policy making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River state namely; there is lack of platform for periodic interaction between political actors and citizens in the local council to ascertain the needs of the citizenry, Bureaucratic ineffectiveness and lack of development planning, second; development policy making and its implementation is of paramount importance in the Obudu local government area, third, there are significant ideas from the grassroots that could help the local government bureaucracy in Obudu to formulate policies for development. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that Obudu local government officials should engage rural development experts to assist them with problems of development-policy making. This will go a long way in facilitating growth and development in the area.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Certification page iii
Table of content vi
List of Tables vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the study 3
1.4 Scope of the study 4
1.5 Significance of the study 4
1.6 Research hypotheses 5
1.7 Research questions 6
1.8 Methodology 6
1.9 Limitations of the study 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 Policy: A conceptual discourse 8
2.1.2 Policy implementation 11
2.1.3 The policy process 13
2.2.2 Reasons why government policy fails 15
2.2 Empirical literature 20
2.3 Theoretical Framework 24
2.3.1 The planning theory 24
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 25
3.1 Research design 25
3.2 Population of the Study 25
3.3 Sample size determination 26
3.4 Sampling technique 26
3.5 Description of research instruments 26
3.6 Validity of the research instruments 27
3.7 Reliability of the study 27
3.8 Method of data analysis 28
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Questionnaire Response-Rate 30
4.2 Demographic Information 31
4.3 Test of Hypothesis 44
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of findings 48
5.2 Conclusion 49
5.3 Recommendations 49
1.1 Background to the Study
Every local government desires growth and development. The elected officials and career administrators of any given local government in Nigeria crave to be credited with carrying out projects that is geared towards the development of the local government area within their jurisdiction. This has led them into engaging in projects, investments and policies to achieve optimum growth and development. However, no community or nation can achieve development without generating development oriented policies and backing them up with effective policy implementation or action.
Policy implementation as perceived by Adamolekun (1983) refers to the activities that are carried out in the light of executing policies. It is the act of converting inputs into outputs. Edwards (1980) further asserts that policy implementation is a stage of policy making between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. It also involves a wide variety of actions such as issuing and enforcing directives, disbursing funds, making loans, assigning and hiring personnel, to mention a few.
However, it has been observed that development policy implementation at the local/grassroot level is one of the major problems confronting local governments in Nigeria. The focus of this study will be on Obudu local government area of Cross River state, Nigeria.
Without proper and effective development policy making and implementation in any local government area, the attainment of development in such a local government jurisdiction remains a mirage. However, many local government administrators may have outstanding development policies but the problem is always one of effective implementation. Development policy implementation problem occurs when the desired and projected outcome is not achieved. Wherever and whenever the basic critical factors that are very crucial to implementing public policy are missing, there is bound to be implementation problem.
In the light of the foregoing, this study is aimed at identifying the problems of development-policy making in Obudu local government area of Cross River state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of development policy making and implementation to achieve development in the local level cannot be overemphasized. However, it is empirically proven that most local governments in Nigeria face problems in the area of development policy making. Most of the major problems faced by them include; lack of visionary political leadership at the local level, ineffective local councils which is not interested in community needs assessment, lack of development culture, lack of executive capacity to undertake policy research in the local government’s Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, community apathy and citizens indifference to interest articulation and aggregation at the local level capable of raising issues into the institutional agenda of the local government (Onyinye, 2015). This state of affairs calls for an empirical study into the problems of development policy-making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this research is to empirically identify the problems of development-policy making in the Obudu local government of Cross River state. Specifically, the study seeks:
1.4 Scope of the Study
The geographical scope of this study was restricted to Obudu local government area of Cross River state and the scope of the study was to identify the problems of development-policy making within that local format bureaucracy.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of a research lies in its usefulness. This investigation will be of use to the government at both the state and local government levels. The study will provide a picture of the existing problems in development policy making and implementation for the development of Obudu local government area of Cross River State. The study has the potential to generate reforms in policy making and implementation for rural development in the other local government area in the state. Furthermore, this investigation will also be useful to researchers as this research will provide them with relevant empirical data and insights on policy making for rural and urban development. Finally, the findings of this research will add to the existing stock of knowledge in development public policy making and implementation for development at the grassroots level.
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were generated to guide the study:
Ho: There are no problems affecting development policy making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River state.
H1: There are problems affecting development policy making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River state.
Ho: Development policy making and its implementation is not of paramount importance in the Obudu local government area.
Hi: Ho: Development policy making and its implementation is of paramount importance in the Obudu local government area.
Ho: There are no significant ideas from the grassroots that could help the local government bureaucracy in Obudu to formulate policies for development.
Hi: There are significant ideas from the grassroots that could help the local government bureaucracy in Obudu to formulate policies for development.
1.7 Research Questions.
The following research questions guided the study:
The descriptive survey research method was used to generate data for the study. Data collection instruments used in this study included structured questionnaire, interviews and personal observation. Data collected were presented in tables and percentages.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
There were constraints in the course of carrying out this study.
This study adopted Obudu local government area of Cross River state as the case study. This is an obvious challenge to the researcher given that the distance between cross river state and the researcher’s school of residence is enormous.
Secondly; money by nature is relatively scare, thusCarrying out a study of this nature requires enormous financial demands. This was really a challenge to the researcher. To overcome this, the researcher adopted a cost minimization strategy by engaging in optimal expenditures concerning the project and also soliciting for financial assistance from friends and family.