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Enugu, Nigeria
Enugu State

Science Lab Technology Project Topics and Research Materials





          The incidence of the infestation of plasmodium species (P.Falciparum, P. Vivax,  P.Ovale, and P. alaria) which causes human malaria in Enugu metropolis was conducted at Parklane Hospital using their patients.  Thick and thin, smear of blood were made and examined after proper staining.  The staining method which proved effective were the Giemsa and Liesman staining method.  It was observed that P.Falciparum was most prevalent of the fair species while P.Ovale has occuarence.  The report from P.Malaria  and P.Ovale were not significant to be recorded.  Prevalent is higher in children than in Adult.










Title page                                                                               





Table of contents                    



1.0     Introduction                                                                  

1.1     Aim and Objective                                                                  

1.2            Statement of problem

1.3           Hypothesis

1.4           Justification

1.5           Limitation of the study

1.6           Scope of the study



2.0            Literature review

2.1     The parasite

2.2            Plasmodium species and their distributions

2.3            Clinical features and pathology of the species

2.4            The transmission Dynamics/Life cycle

2.5            Differences in Plasmodium species


          Material  and method

3.0            Materials

3.1     Procurement of sample

3.2            Stock solution

3.3            Technique of staining thick films using Giensa stain

3.4            Technique of stain of thin film using Leisman stain



4.0            Results and data collection

4.1     Results

4.2            Comparism of incidence of malaria

4.3            Data Analysis



5.0            Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1     Discussion

5.2            Recommendation

5.3           References











Table 1:      Differences in plasmodium species                      29


Table 2:      Age distribution of target population                            35


Table 3:      Sex distribution of the incidence of malaria

on the first day                                                     35


Table 4:      Comparison of the incidence of malaria by

 species of plasmodium                                        36


Table 5:      Sex distribution of the incidence of malaria

on the second day                                                36






Figure 1:     The life cycle of malaria parasite                          3


Figure 2:     Diagram of thick and thin film                                       27


Figure 3:     The Gametocyte of P. Vicax and  P.Ovale           31


Figure 4:     The trophozoite of P. Vivax and P. Ovale           32


Figure 5;     The trophozoite of P. Malaria and P falaparum   33


Figure 6:     The Gametocyte of P. malaria and P falciparum  34


Figure 7:     Graph showing incidence of malaria By species

 of plasmodium on the first day using table one  37


Figure 8:     Barchart showing incidenced of malaria by

species of Plasmodium on the first day using

table one                                                               38                                                                        

Figure 9:     Sex distribution of the incidence of malaria

on the first day using table 2                                39                                                     

Figure 10:   Graph showing the incidence of malaria on the

 second day using table 3                                               40








Malaria is a febrile illness caused by a protozoan of the germs plasmodium present public health problem and cause suffering and premature death in tropical and subtropical countries, because of htier ample rainfall; and long periods, of warmth which favour both mosquito breeding and human infection (Adams and Magraitt 1980,),

In many endemic area, malaria increases and difficult to control because of the resistance of the parasite to antimalaria drings and the failure of vector control measures: At present, about two billion population live in malarious zone.  Every year, 200-300 million people are due to the disease.  Most of the victims are children under five (5) and pregnant women in areas  of stable malaria (intence malaria) transmission.  Malaria also poses a risk to travellers, tarists and immigrants and exotic cases of malaria are

There are four species of  Plasmodium  which infects humans.  although infection is generally cases occur in the USA and other countries which are otherwise free of malaria transmission.  Falciparum,  and Plasmodium  vivaz, which are found throughout malaria belt. Plasmodium malaria is widely distributed but less common  Plasmodium Ovale is rare but it tends to replace P. Viax in west Africa where it has been linked with Lack of Duffy blood group by (John Murray, 1880).

The life cycle of the malaria (Plasmodium protozoa) includes of the malaria (plasmodium protozoa)includes three  basic stages. The first stage occurs  in the mosgintos body (Exogenous stage). The second and the third stages take place in a persons  body (exogenous stage) the first stage begins where the mosginto bites Samoan who has malaria. Plasmodium enter the insects body and reproduce in its stomach. The protozoan young tin their way into the mosguito saliva.  The second stage occurs after the mosquito bites another person. Plasmodia.


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