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Science Lab Technology Project Topics and Research Materials

THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES DICHLORODIPHENYL TRICHLOROEYHANE (D.D.Y) AND BENZENE HEXACHRORIDE (BHC) ON THE MICROFLORA OF THE THREE TYPES OF SOIL.

ABSTRACT

 

The effect of pesticides, chchlorodipheny trichloroethane (DDY) and Benzene hexaxhoride (BHc) on the  microflora of the three types of soil (loamy, clay and sandy soil) was conducted. The serial dietitian technique was employed up to 10-3 using nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar and sabourand agar plates. The isolation of both bacterial and fungal organisms were made  before treating the soil types with the two pesticides), D.D.T and BHC.  and after treating the soil types with D.D.T after treating  and BHc. The highest bacterial count before treating the soil types with D.D.T and BHc was got in loamy soil with 133 per ml having  PH 7.1, followed by clay soil with 78 per ml and  least was sandy soil with 42 per ml. while the highest bacterial count  after treating the soil types with D.D.T was gotten in loamy soil 105 per ml, followed by clay soil with  51 and least count was got in sandy with 28 per ml. Also the  highest bacterial count after treatment with BHc was obtained in loamy soil with 12F per ml, followed by clay soil with 64 per ml and the least count was got from sand soil with 37 per ml. The highest bacterial isolate from all the soil types before  treatment with the two pesticides was pseudomonas with 25 per ml, followed by Bacillus SPP with   24 per ml, and  next was achnomycetes with 19 per ml  while the least bacterial organism was Rhizobrium SPP. The fungal organisms isolates were Aspergillus species, syncophatastrum species, pernicillum species and mucor species. The results of this project showed that there was reduction in microflora of the soil types after treatment separately with the two pesticides. But the effect was more with  D.D.T than with BHc. Also the effects of the two pesticides was highest in sandy soil followed by clay and lastly the loamy soil. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title pages

Certification page

Acknowledgement

Dedication page

Abstract

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.2            Aims and objectives

1.3            Statement of problem

1.4            Hypothesis

1.5            Limitation of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review                                                                       

2.1     Pesticide labeling and safety                                                        

2.2            Various classes and types of pesticides.                                        

2.3            Effects of pesticide on population of invertebrates in soil        

2.4            Effects of  pesticides on population of vertebrates in the soil   

2.5            Effects of pesticides on population of micro organism in the soil

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and methods                                                           

 3.1    materials                                                                                 

3.2     Methods                                                                                 

3.2.1  Sterilization                                                                                      

3.2.2  Collection of pesticides                                                                   

3.2.3  Collection of three types of soil loamy clay sandy                           

3.2.4  Preparation of media                                                             

2.2.5  Playing technique                                                                               

3.2.6 Microbial count, staining and microscopic work                    

3.2.7  Identification of would                                                           

3.2.8  Biochemical test for identification   

         

CHAPTER FOUR

 Result                 

                                                                            

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussions         

                                                                            

CHAPTER SIX

6.0     Conclusion and recommendation                                           

6.1            conclusion

6.2            recommendation                                                                     

References                                                                                          

Appendix                                                                                         

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

According to crupta and Daroren (2003) soil is that portion of the surface of the land which is essential for plant growth. Plant are anchored in the soil by their root, which spread in all direction and which by holding on to the soil keep the plant in position plant draw all their water and  most of their food or nutrient from the soil. Soil is therefore the source of food for plants, animals and man. Soil is of different types, sandy, clay and loamy soil. Sandy soil has or size range of 0.2 to 2mm diameter. They are free draining and do not retain any appreciable amount of soil water. It is brown loose and dry. While clay soil range in size from 0.002mm and lower and contains more than 40% of clay particles. They are sticky, plastic and  easily moldable into  shape. Another type is loamy soil which contains a fair balance of clay , silt and sand particle and it is the best  soil for agriculture, as it has a high proportion of organic matter or content soil organic malter represents on accumulation of  partially decayed and animal residues. Such material is continually being broken down as a result  of the  work of soil micro –organism consequently. It is a rather  transitory soil constituent and must be renewed constantly by the additionb of plant residues. The organic matter content of a soil is small, only 3-5 percent by weight in a representative minerals topsoil. It is a major soil

 

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